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LSSS 2014-2015

2014LSSS2015

Life Sciences Seminar Series

 

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Asaph Aharoni

Department of Plant sciences, Faculty of Biochemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Unravelling plant metabolism through the integration of heterogeneous data from metabolomics, genetics and informatics

Selected Publications

The bitter side of the nightshades: Genomics drives discovery in Solanaceae steroidal alkaloid metabolism.Cárdenas PD, Sonawane PD, Heinig U, Bocobza SE, Burdman S, Aharoni A
Phytochemistry 2014 Dec 31

Abstract

Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) and their glycosylated forms (SGAs) are toxic compounds largely produced by members of the Solanaceae and Liliaceae plant families. This class of specialized metabolites serves as a chemical barrier against a broad range of pest and pathogens. In humans and animals, SAs are considered anti-nutritional factors because they affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food and might even cause poisoning. In spite of the first report on SAs nearly 200years ago, much of the molecular basis of their biosynthesis and regulation remains unknown. Aspects concerning chemical structures and biological activities of SAs have been reviewed extensively elsewhere; therefore, in this review the latest insights to the elucidation of the SAs biosynthetic pathway are highlighted. Recently, co-expression analysis combined with metabolic profiling revealed metabolic gene clusters in tomato and potato that contain core genes required for production of the prominent SGAs in these two species. Elaborating the knowledge regarding the SAs biosynthetic pathway, the subcellular transport of these molecules, as well as the identification of regulatory and signaling factors associated with SA metabolism will likely advance understanding of chemical defense mechanisms in Solanaceae and Liliaceae plants. It will also provide the means to develop, through classical breeding or genetic engineering, crops with modified levels of anti-nutritional SAs.

Biosynthesis of antinutritional alkaloids in solanaceous crops is mediated by clustered genes.Itkin M, Heinig U, Tzfadia O, Bhide AJ, Shinde B, Cardenas PD, Bocobza SE, Unger T, Malitsky S, Finkers R, Tikunov Y, Bovy A, Chikate Y, Singh P, Rogachev I, Beekwilder J, Giri AP, Aharoni A
Science 2013 Jul 12; 341(6142):175-9

Abstract

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) such as α-solanine found in solanaceous food plants--as, for example, potato--are antinutritional factors for humans. Comparative coexpression analysis between tomato and potato coupled with chemical profiling revealed an array of 10 genes that partake in SGA biosynthesis. We discovered that six of them exist as a cluster on chromosome 7, whereas an additional two are adjacent in a duplicated genomic region on chromosome 12. Following systematic functional analysis, we suggest a revised SGA biosynthetic pathway starting from cholesterol up to the tetrasaccharide moiety linked to the tomato SGA aglycone. Silencing GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 4 prevented accumulation of SGAs in potato tubers and tomato fruit. This may provide a means for removal of unsafe, antinutritional substances present in these widely used food crops.

High-resolution metabolic mapping of cell types in plant roots.Moussaieff A, Rogachev I, Brodsky L, Malitsky S, Toal TW, Belcher H, Yativ M, Brady SM, Benfey PN, Aharoni A
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013 Mar 26; 110(13):E1232-41

Abstract

Metabolite composition offers a powerful tool for understanding gene function and regulatory processes. However, metabolomics studies on multicellular organisms have thus far been performed primarily on whole organisms, organs, or cell lines, losing information about individual cell types within a tissue. With the goal of profiling metabolite content in different cell populations within an organ, we used FACS to dissect GFP-marked cells from Arabidopsis roots for metabolomics analysis. Here, we present the metabolic profiles obtained from five GFP-tagged lines representing core cell types in the root. Fifty metabolites were putatively identified, with the most prominent groups being glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids, and dipeptides, the latter of which is not yet explored in roots. The mRNA expression of enzymes or regulators in the corresponding biosynthetic pathways was compared with the relative metabolite abundance. Positive correlations suggest that the rate-limiting steps in biosynthesis of glucosinolates in the root are oxidative modifications of side chains. The current study presents a work flow for metabolomics analyses of cell-type populations.

Orchestration of thiamin biosynthesis and central metabolism by combined action of the thiamin pyrophosphate riboswitch and the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.Bocobza SE, Malitsky S, Araújo WL, Nunes-Nesi A, Meir S, Shapira M, Fernie AR, Aharoni A
Plant Cell 2013 Jan; 25(1):288-307

Abstract

Riboswitches are natural RNA elements that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by binding small molecules and thereby autonomously control intracellular levels of these metabolites. Although riboswitch-based mechanisms have been examined extensively, the integration of their activity with global physiology and metabolism has been largely overlooked. Here, we explored the regulation of thiamin biosynthesis and the consequences of thiamin pyrophosphate riboswitch deficiency on metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that thiamin biosynthesis is largely regulated by the circadian clock via the activity of the THIAMIN C SYNTHASE (THIC) promoter, while the riboswitch located at the 3' untranslated region of this gene controls overall thiamin biosynthesis. Surprisingly, the results also indicate that the rate of thiamin biosynthesis directs the activity of thiamin-requiring enzymes and consecutively determines the rate of carbohydrate oxidation via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose-phosphate pathway. Our model suggests that in Arabidopsis, the THIC promoter and the thiamin-pyrophosphate riboswitch act simultaneously to tightly regulate thiamin biosynthesis in a circadian manner and consequently sense and control vital points of core cellular metabolism.

The challenges of cellular compartmentalization in plant metabolic engineering.Heinig U, Gutensohn M, Dudareva N, Aharoni A
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2013 Apr; 24(2):239-46

Abstract

The complex metabolic networks in plants are highly compartmentalized and biochemical steps of a single pathway can take place in multiple subcellular locations. Our knowledge regarding reactions and precursor compounds in the various cellular compartments has increased in recent years due to innovations in tracking the spatial distribution of proteins and metabolites. Nevertheless, to date only few studies have integrated subcellular localization criteria in metabolic engineering attempts. Here, we highlight the crucial factors for subcellular-localization-based strategies in plant metabolic engineering including substrate availability, enzyme targeting, the role of transporters, and multigene transfer approaches. The availability of compartmentalized metabolic network models for plants in the near future will greatly advance the integration of localization constraints in metabolic engineering experiments and aid in predicting their outcomes.