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LSSS 2015-2016

2015LSSS2016

Life Sciences Seminar Series

 

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Jim Hurley

Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, UC Berkeley, USA

From HIV to Autophagy: Solving Nature's Nanoscale Jigsaw Puzzles on Membranes

Selected Publications

Negative membrane curvature catalyzes nucleation of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III assembly.Lee IH, Kai H, Carlson LA, Groves JT, Hurley JH
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Dec 29; 112(52):15892-7

Abstract

The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery functions in HIV-1 budding, cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and other pathways, in the course of which it interacts with concave membrane necks and bud rims. To test the role of membrane shape in regulating ESCRT assembly, we nanofabricated templates for invaginated supported lipid bilayers. The assembly of the core ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B/Snf7 is preferentially nucleated in the resulting 100-nm-deep membrane concavities. ESCRT-II and CHMP6 accelerate CHMP4B assembly by increasing the concentration of nucleation seeds. Superresolution imaging was used to visualize CHMP4B/Snf7 concentration in a negatively curved annulus at the rim of the invagination. Although Snf7 assemblies nucleate slowly on flat membranes, outward growth onto the flat membrane is efficiently nucleated at invaginations. The nucleation behavior provides a biophysical explanation for the timing of ESCRT-III recruitment and membrane scission in HIV-1 budding.

HIV-1 Nef hijacks clathrin coats by stabilizing AP-1:Arf1 polygons.Shen QT, Ren X, Zhang R, Lee IH, Hurley JH
Science 2015 Oct 23; 350(6259):aac5137

Abstract

The lentiviruses HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) subvert intracellular membrane traffic as part of their replication cycle. The lentiviral Nef protein helps viruses evade innate and adaptive immune defenses by hijacking the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) and AP-2 clathrin adaptors. We found that HIV-1 Nef and the guanosine triphosphatase Arf1 induced trimerization and activation of AP-1. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Nef- and Arf1-bound AP-1 trimer in the active and inactive states. A central nucleus of three Arf1 molecules organizes the trimers. We combined the open trimer with a known dimer structure and thus predicted a hexagonal assembly with inner and outer faces that bind the membranes and clathrin, respectively. Hexagons were directly visualized and the model validated by reconstituting clathrin cage assembly. Arf1 and Nef thus play interconnected roles in allosteric activation, cargo recruitment, and coat assembly, revealing an unexpectedly intricate organization of the inner AP-1 layer of the clathrin coat.

Vps4 disassembles an ESCRT-III filament by global unfolding and processive translocation.Yang B, Stjepanovic G, Shen Q, Martin A, Hurley JH
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2015 Jun; 22(6):492-8

Abstract

The AAA+ ATPase Vps4 disassembles ESCRT-III and is essential for HIV-1 budding and other pathways. Vps4 is a paradigmatic member of a class of hexameric AAA+ ATPases that disassemble protein complexes without degradation. To distinguish between local displacement versus global unfolding mechanisms for complex disassembly, we carried out hydrogen/deuterium exchange during Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vps4 disassembly of a chimeric Vps24-2 ESCRT-III filament. EX1 exchange behavior shows that Vps4 completely unfolds ESCRT-III substrates on a time scale consistent with the disassembly reaction. The established unfoldase ClpX showed the same pattern, thus demonstrating a common unfolding mechanism. Vps4 hexamers containing a single cysteine residue in the pore loops were cross-linked to ESCRT-III subunits containing unique cysteines within the folded core domain. These data support a mechanism in which Vps4 disassembles its substrates by completely unfolding them and threading them through the central pore.

Architecture and dynamics of the autophagic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex.Baskaran S, Carlson LA, Stjepanovic G, Young LN, Kim do J, Grob P, Stanley RE, Nogales E, Hurley JH
Elife 2014 Dec 9; 3

Abstract

The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PI3KC3-C1) that functions in early autophagy consists of the lipid kinase VPS34, the scaffolding protein VPS15, the tumor suppressor BECN1, and the autophagy-specific subunit ATG14. The structure of the ATG14-containing PI3KC3-C1 was determined by single-particle EM, revealing a V-shaped architecture. All of the ordered domains of VPS34, VPS15, and BECN1 were mapped by MBP tagging. The dynamics of the complex were defined using hydrogen-deuterium exchange, revealing a novel 20-residue ordered region C-terminal to the VPS34 C2 domain. VPS15 organizes the complex and serves as a bridge between VPS34 and the ATG14:BECN1 subcomplex. Dynamic transitions occur in which the lipid kinase domain is ejected from the complex and VPS15 pivots at the base of the V. The N-terminus of BECN1, the target for signaling inputs, resides near the pivot point. These observations provide a framework for understanding the allosteric regulation of lipid kinase activity.

Assembly and dynamics of the autophagy-initiating Atg1 complex.Stjepanovic G, Davies CW, Stanley RE, Ragusa MJ, Kim do J, Hurley JH
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Sep 2; 111(35):12793-8

Abstract

The autophagy-related 1 (Atg1) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a central role in the initiation of autophagy following starvation and TORC1 inactivation. The complex consists of the protein kinase Atg1, the TORC1 substrate Atg13, and the trimeric Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 scaffolding subcomplex. Autophagy is triggered when Atg1 and Atg13 assemble with the trimeric scaffold. Here we show by hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry that the mutually interacting Atg1 early autophagy targeting/tethering domain and the Atg13 central domain are highly dynamic in isolation but together form a stable complex with ∼ 100-nM affinity. The Atg1-Atg13 complex in turn binds as a unit to the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 scaffold with ∼ 10-μM affinity via Atg13. The resulting complex consists primarily of a dimer of pentamers in solution. These results lead to a model for autophagy initiation in which Atg1 and Atg13 are tightly associated with one another and assemble transiently into the pentameric Atg1 complex during starvation.

How HIV-1 Nef hijacks the AP-2 clathrin adaptor to downregulate CD4.Ren X, Park SY, Bonifacino JS, Hurley JH
Elife 2014; 3:e01754

Abstract

The Nef protein of HIV-1 downregulates the cell surface co-receptor CD4 by hijacking the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. The structural basis for the hijacking of AP-2 by Nef is revealed by a 2.9 Å crystal structure of Nef bound to the α and σ2 subunits of AP-2. Nef binds to AP-2 via its central loop (residues 149-179) and its core. The determinants for Nef binding include residues that directly contact AP-2 and others that stabilize the binding-competent conformation of the central loop. Residues involved in both direct and indirect interactions are required for the binding of Nef to AP-2 and for downregulation of CD4. These results lead to a model for the docking of the full AP-2 tetramer to membranes as bound to Nef, such that the cytosolic tail of CD4 is situated to interact with its binding site on Nef. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01754.001.